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Nov 23 2020

Agricultural Products Classification In India

The word “agriculture” comes from the Latin words “Agri” means field, and “culture” means cultivation (or) a way of life. “Agriculture is all about producing food, feed, fiber, and many other byproducts by the process of cultivating certain plants and domesticating animals.” The process of practicing agriculture is known as “farming.”

Now, let’s come to Indian agriculture. The total arable (cultivated) land area is 159.7 million hectares that stand second after the United States. In gross irrigated crop area, India is leading with an area of nearly 82 million hectares. In agricultural production, India ranks 2nd in the world and 8th in Agricultural exports.

Agriculture as the Backbone of India:

We know that India has a population of 1.27 billion and is the second most populated country. But, the Amazing fact is that nearly 70% of the rural farmers depend primarily on agriculture and its allied sectors for their incomes, out of which 82% come under small and marginal farmers.

From this, it’s well-known that India is an agriculture-based country and how much importance should be given to this sector. With over 263 million farmers and farm laborers, agriculture is one of the biggest private enterprises which have contributed to nearly 17.5% in the total GDP of India; therefore, agriculture is called the backbone of India!

Agricultural Products:

Agriculture products are the products that come from plants and animals which are cultivated and domesticated for food, clothes, etc. and sometimes industries too require certain products for its production purpose.

From the above-given agriculture definition, we can conclude that this process mainly revolves around agricultural products such as,

  • What product to produce?
  • How much to produce?
  • Which product has more value in the current market?
  • Which product is suitable for our geographical condition and climate?

To understand better about these agricultural products, one should know how they are classified based on various factors.

Agricultural products are primarily classified into various cultures based on the commodity (or) product produced and further classified based on various factors such as season, perishability, and uses.

Based on Different Type of Cultures:

Agriculture:

Agriculture is mainly farming. According to this classification, all crops which come under the following categories belong to Agriculture.

  • Cereals
  • Pulses
  • Nuts
  • Oilseeds
  • Sugar and starch
  • Fiber crops
  • Beverages
  • Narcotics
  • Spices and condiments
  • Rubber forages
  • Green and green leaf manure

Horticulture:

The word “Hortus” means garden, and horticulture is mainly based on gardening. This second broader classification consists of garden crops which generally comprise.

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Ornamental plants

Floriculture:

The word “flos” means flower, and floriculture is mainly based on the growing and marketing of flowering and ornamental crops as well as flower arrangements.

Animal Husbandry:

It is a branch of agriculture which deals with breeding and care of farm animals such as cattle, sheep, pig, and horse for human benefits such as meat, milk, etc.

Aviculture:

The word “Avis” means birds. It is the process of keeping and breeding. wild birds in captivity. It’s not only raising birds for commercial purposes but also for preserving the avian habitat.

Aquaculture:

Aquaculture means breeding and rearing of fish and aquatic plants and cultivation of freshwater and saltwater population under a controlled environment.

Apiculture:

The meaning of “Apis” is bees; apiculture refers to the care and management of honeybees for the production of honey and beeswax.

Sericulture:

The word “Sericum” means silk. the process of cultivation of silkworm to produce silk.

Viticulture:

The meaning of “Vitis” is the grapevine, and it is the process of cultivation and harvesting grapes.

Arboriculture:

The word “arbor” means trees. The process of cultivating shrubs, trees, and woody plants for decoration and shade is known as arboriculture.

Vermiculture:

The meaning of “Vermis” is worms; the process of cultivating earthworms to decompose organic food wastes into fertile and nutrient-rich soil is called vermiculture.

Moriculture:

The cultivation of mulberry plants and harvesting its leaves for providing feed for silkworms is known as moriculture.

Pisciculture:

The artificial means of rearing, breeding, and transplanting of various varieties of fish are known as pisciculture.